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Islamic Culture and Modern World

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“In the eyes of history, religious toleration is the highest evidence of culture in a people. It was not until the Western nations broke away from their religious law that they became more tolerant, and it was only when the Muslims fell away from their religious law that they declined in tolerance and other evidences of the highest culture. [Pickethall]

Introduction:

Presently it is very common expression that; Muslims as a community are not adjustable to the global environments with divergent cultures. The Muslims in Europe have failed to adapt to the European culture, which has become a bone of contention and Islamophobia. The Muslims settled in Europe and America come from different continents and countries speaking different languages, belong to different races, colour but they are all grouped as one cultural class due to their common values embedded by their faith in Islam. It is important that the Islamic Culture is understood in perspective for accommodating the Muslims in divergent cultures for peaceful coexistence. 
Islamic culture is a contentious term. Muslims live in many different countries and communities, and it can be difficult to isolate points of cultural unity among Muslims, besides their adherence to the religion of Islam. Anthropologists and historians nevertheless study Islam as an aspect of, and influence on, culture in the regions where the religion is predominant. Islamic culture is a term primarily used in academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples.
With the rapid expansion of the Islamic empires, Muslim culture has influenced and assimilated much from the Persian, Turkic, Pakistani, Mongol, Chinese, Indian, Bangladeshi, Malay, Somali, Berber, Egyptian, Indonesian, Filipino, Greek-Roman Byzantine, Spanish, Sicilian, Balkanic and Western cultures. Hence some of the cultural practices adopted by local Muslims like circumcision of females in some Arab & African countries, honour killing for marriage by choice, denying inheritance to women etc cannot be termed as Islamic culture but they are local in nature. Any cultural practice with the broad parameters of Islam are acceptable as part of Islamic culture while others rejected being un-Islamic.........

The Spirit of Muslim Culture- According to Dr.Muhammad Iqbal

Allama Dr. Muhammad Iqbal describes ‘The Spirit of Muslim Culture’, it can be summarized as:
·         The unity of human origin, as a social movement the aim of Islam was to make the idea a living factor in the Muslim's daily life, and thus silently and imperceptibly to carry it towards fuller fruition.
·         It is one of the most essential teachings of the Quran that nations are collectively judged, and suffer for their misdeeds here and now.
·         Devine life is in touch with the whole universe on the analogy of the soul's contact with the body. The soul is neither inside nor outside the body... Yet its contact with every atom of the body is real.
·         The finality of the institution of prophethood... The abolition of priesthood and hereditary kingship in Islam, the constant appeal to reason and experience in the Quran, and the emphasis that it lays on Nature and History as sources of human knowledge, are all different aspects of the same idea of finality
·         The idea (finality), however, does not mean that mystic experience, which qualitatively does not differ from the experience of the prophet, has now ceased to exist as a vital fact. Indeed the Quran regards both "Anfus" (self) and "Afaq" (world) as sources of knowledge. God reveals His signs in inner as well as outer experience, and it is the duty of man to judge the knowledge-yielding capacity of all aspects of experience
·         The inner experience is only one source of human knowledge. According to the Quran there are two other sources of knowledge - Nature and History
·         It is a mistake to suppose that the experimental method is a European discovery... Europe has been rather slow to recognize the Islamic origin of her scientific method. But full recognition of the fact has at last come. Let me quote one or two passages from Briffault's Making of Humanity:
a.    "... It was under their successors at the Oxford School that Roger Bacon learned Arabic and Arabic Science. Neither Roger Bacon nor his later namesake has any title to be credited with having introduced the experimental method. Roger Bacon was no more than one of the apostles of Muslim science and method to Christian Europe; and he never wearied of declaring that a knowledge of Arabic and Arabic Science was for his contemporaries the only way to true knowledge... The experimental method of the Arabs was by Bacon's time widespread and eagerly cultivated throughout Europe"
b.    In the history of Muslim culture... we find that both in the realms of pure intellect, and religious psychology, by which term I mean higher Sufism, the ideal revealed is the possession and enjoyment of the Infinite........
Keep reading e-Book : Islamic Culture and Modern World

Excerpts .....................

Ten Major Attributes of Islamic Society:

The Islamic society can clearly be distinguished from any other society in the world. It has certain characteristic attributes that differentiate it from the rest of the societies of the world and the identity of a Muslim society is universal and Muslims from different parts of the world can easily form and adjust in an Islamic society, regardless of their cultural differences. Here are some verses of Quran that describe the ten major attributes of an Islamic society. Less than 0.001% extremist terrorists distort some verses (revealed for defensive wars between early Muslims and polytheist opponents) to justify their heinous activities and crimes against humanity, maligning 1.6 Billion Muslims:
1.    Belief in One God: “O you who believe! Fear God as He should be feared and die not except in a state of Islam.” (3:102)
2.    Justice, Peace and Balance: "Thus have we made of you an Ummah justly balanced, that you might be witnesses over the nations, and the Apostle a witness over yourselves…..” (2:143), "Among the people, one may impress you with his utterances concerning this life, and may even call upon GOD to witness his innermost thoughts, while he is a most ardent opponent. If such people attain political power they create corruption in the earth. Their rule results in destruction of the produce of land and labor and the damage done by them affects generations. Allah loves not corruption and mischief."(2:204,205)
3.    Brotherhood: “Verily, this brotherhood of yours is a single brotherhood, and I am your lord and cherisher. Therefore, fear me (and no other).”(23:52)
4.    Consultation/Democracy:“And those who have responded to their lord and established prayer and whose affair is (determined by) consultation among themselves, and from what We have provided them, they spend.” (42:38)
5.    Freedom of Faith: “…there is no compulsion in the matter of religion.” (2:256).
6.    Justice and Good Treatment of Minorities: “.. Nearest in affection to the believers (Muslims) are those who say: "We are Christians…”(Qur’an;5:82), "As for such (of the unbelievers) as do not fight against you on account of your faith, and neither drive you forth from your homelands, Allah does not forbid you to show them kindness and to behave towards them with full equity. Indeed, Allah loves those who act equitably"(Qur’an;60:8)
7.    Commending Good, Forbidding Evil: “You are the best Ummah raised up for people: you enjoin good and forbid evil and you believe in Allah.” (3:110)
8.    Not Disputing: “….And dispute not one with another, lest you get weak-hearted and your power depart, and be steadfast. Surely Allah is with the steadfast.” (8:46)
9.    Self Defence: “Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed, Allah does not like transgressors.” (2:190)
10. Gender Equality: “Whoso does good whether male or female, and is a believer, shall enter Paradise and they shall not be wronged a whit.” (4:124)
In short, an Islamic society is an ideal society or the next thing to utopia that a particular group of people can create in this world. The need of the time is that the world in general and Muslims in particular understand the true concept of an Islamic society and create a community where people cooperate with each other and there is justice and peace among its members. The past history is reflection of success of Muslim society and culture and its contributions towards development of humanity: ..............................

The Sources of Islam:

Quran, the revealed word of God, is the primary source of Islam. According to Allama Dr.Muhammad Iqbal; The second great source of Muhammadan Law (Shari’ah) is the traditions of the Holy Prophet. .........................

Hadith and Muslim Culture:

Hadiths have been the subject of great discussion both in ancient and modern times. The early forms of Muslim culture were predominantly Arab. With the rapid expansion of the Islamic empires, Muslim culture has influenced and assimilated much from the local cultures. Traditionalists advocate adherence to all practices of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), though being an Arab he was adhering to Arab cultural, but where ever there was conflict with Islamic principles he did not hesitate to change. According to the progressive Muslims   strict adherence to Arab cultural traditions is not necessary to be a good Muslim. They emphasize adherence to the core Islamic tenet and values and Islamic principles for their universal application among all cultures. Since Hadith literature contains mix of cultural and religious contents, there is a need to segregate them very carefully. Some progressive Muslims in a hurry try to totally disregard the valuable Hadith literature, which is unreasonable. However the central issue with Hadith is its authenticity. From the legal theoretician's point of view, Hadith can be divided into Mutawatir (transmitted via numerous chains of narrators, number of such Hadiths varies from 100 to 300 as against thousands) and ahad (anything that is not Mutawatir, reported by single narrator or few). The medieval scholar Al-Nawawi argued that any non-Mutawatir Hadith is only probable and cannot reach the level of certainty that a Mutawatir Hadith can. ...........

Mutawatir (Successive, Continuous chain) Hadith:

A Mutawatir (‫continuous, successive) Hadith is a report of such a large number of narrators (at different times) that their agreement upon an untruth is inconceivable thus being accepted as unquestionable in its veracity. A Hadith is said to be Mutawatir if it was reported by a significant, though unspecified, number of narrators at each level in the chain of narration, thus reaching the succeeding generation through multiple chains of narration leading back to its source. This provides confirmation that the Hadith is authentically attributed to its source at a level above reasonable doubt. This is due to its being beyond historical possibility that narrators could have conspired to forge a narration. In contrast, an Ahaad Hadith is a narration the chain of which has not reached a number sufficient to qualify as Mutawatir. There are only two types of texts in Islamic sharīʿah which are immutable (Qaati’) a) verses of Qura’n and b) Mutawatir Hadith. If someone denies a Mutawatir Hadith he does Kufr. There are only 100 to 310 Mutawatir Hadiths according to different collections. ....................................

New Work on Hadith in Turkey:

There are approximately around 159,000 Hadiths or narrations, which include repetition. For example, in the Bukhari text there are 7,275 Hadith including repetitions. When repetitions excluded the number is 2,230. Similarly when exclude the repetitions in the total 159,000, we are left with about 20,000 Hadith. In Turkey a project has been launched to understand Hadiths in present era. Professor Mehmet Gormez, vice-president of Turkey’s “Religious Affairs Directorate, or Diyanet” ...................................

Islam in 21st Century:

“The claim of the present generation of Muslim liberals (progressive Muslims) to reinterpret the foundational legal principles, in the light of their own experience and the altered conditions of modern life is, in my opinion, perfectly justified.” – Allama Dr.Muhammad Iqbal
The terminology “Liberal Muslim” or “Liberal Islam” is used here to mean “Progressive Muslim” not in the sense defined and used by West. Liberalism is a Western political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. Whereas classical liberalism emphasises the role of liberty, social liberalism stresses the importance of equality. 

Why Progressive Movements Failed?

The reasons for the lack of success of progressive movements in Islam may be attributed to a series of historical circumstances, rather than to some inherent flaw in Islam. Some reasons according to Aykol are: ..................

Several generally accepted tenets have emerged:

There are many trends, which are not considered acceptable by the traditionalists, like; the autonomy of the individual in interpreting the Quran and Hadith. More liberal trends include rejecting Hadiths completely (like Quran Alone Muslims) or partially (including Hadiths considered authentic (Sahih) by traditionalists) like Gamal Al-Banna. .................................

Islamic Modernism:

The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is an ultra-conservative reform movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Arabia in the first half of the 18th century, against a background of European colonialism. It advocated a return to the traditions of the "devout ancestors" (the salaf). Some scholars define this movement as Modernist Salafism. The Salafist doctrine can be summed up as taking "a fundamentalist approach to Islam, emulating the Prophet Muhammad(pbuh) and his earliest followers – al-salaf al-salih, the 'pious forefathers'." "They reject religious innovation,...........................................

Quran and Hadith Distinction:

Mustafa Akyol, a Turkish writer, never expresses any doubt that Allah is real or that the Qur’an is a revelation that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) received from Allah. Instead, he argues from within the Islamic tradition that there have all along been multiple interpretations of the Qur’an, and that the fundamentalist ones currently popular are their corruptions due to unfortunate historical circumstances of the post-Qur’anic era. In particular, he distinguishes between the Qur’an and the Hadiths .....................

Muslim Contributions in Human Development:

The contributions in the advancement of knowledge for betterment of humanity are enormous, which have been summed up in Encyclopedia Britannica:
“The Madrasahs generally offered instruction in both the religious sciences and other branches of knowledge. The contribution of these institutions to the advancement of knowledge was vast. Muslim scholars calculated the angle of the ecliptic; measured the size of the Earth; calculated the precession of the equinoxes; explained, in the field of optics and physics, such phenomena as refraction of light, gravity, capillary attraction, and twilight; and developed observatories for the empirical study of heavenly bodies. They made advances in the uses of drugs, herbs, and foods for medication; established hospitals with a system of interns and externs; discovered causes of certain diseases and developed correct diagnoses of them; proposed new concepts of hygiene; made use of anesthetics in surgery with newly innovated surgical tools; and introduced the science of dissection in anatomy. Muslims furthered the scientific breeding of horses and cattle; found new ways of grafting to produce new types of flowers and fruits; introduced new concepts of irrigation, fertilization, and soil cultivation; and improved upon the science of navigation. In the area of chemistry, Muslim scholarship led to the discovery of such substances as potash, alcohol, nitrate of silver, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and mercury chloride. ........................................... 

Influence on Europe:

Europe has known art objects of Islamic origin since the early Middle Ages, when they were brought home by the crusaders or manufactured by the Arabs in Sicily and Spain. Much admired and even imitated, they formed part of the material culture in those times, so much so ..................................

European Islam:

European Islam is a hypothesized new branch of Islam, which some believe is emerging in Europe, and which would combine the duties and principles of Islam with the contemporary European cultures, including Europe's post-Enlightenment values and traditions such as..............

The Perfected Religion:

Islam was completed during lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), during last Hajj, Allah declared:
“…. This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam.”(Quran”: 5:3)
The famous six Hadith (Tradition) books were written about 250 years later, through individual private collections. While the Quran had been officially compiled and approved, Hadiths had not. Muslims were already offering prayers 5 times a day, all other practices were in place, some not fully elaborated in Quran, were very much in practice, through Sunnah of Prophet (pbuh) in Twatir (unbroken continuity). Probably this could be one of reason of not officially codifying Hadiths by rightly guided caliphs, Allah says: ...............................

Salient Aspects of Islamic Society and Culture:

·         Islamic society is to be governed through (Shura) consultation, based upon justice through Shari’a law, which is only possible in Muslim dominated societies. There are many Muslim countries which are secular. The choice should be left to the people rather than imposing through coercsion. The Muslims living in other countries have to adhere to the law of land, which grants freedom of faith and religion to everyone according to UN charter. ...........

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Introduction to Islam: by Dr.Hamidullah اردو کتب

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Muhammad Hamidullah (Urduمحمد حمیداللہ‎), (9 February 1908 – 17 December 2002) D. Phil.D. Litt.HI, was a MuhaddithFaqih, scholar of Islamic law and an academic author with over 250 books. A prolific writer, his extensive works on Islamic science, history and culture have been published in several languages and many thousands of articles in learned journals. His scholarship is regarded by many as unparalleled in the last century. A double doctorate (D.Phil and D.Litt) and a polymath, he was fluent in 22 languages including Urdu (his mother tongue), Persian, Arabic, French, English, German, Italian, Greek, Turkish, Russian etc. He learned Thai at the age of 84. More >>>>


ڈاکٹر محمد حمید اللہ (پیدائش: 9فروری 1908ء، انتقال : 17 دسمبر 2002ء) معروف محدث، فقیہ، محقق، قانون دان اور اسلامی دانشور تھے اور بین الاقوامی قوانین کے ماہر سمجھے جاتے تھے۔ تاریخ حدیث پر اعلٰی تحقیق، فرانسیسی میں ترجمہ قرآن اور مغرب کے قلب میں ترویج اسلام کا اہم فریضہ نبھانے پر آپ کو عالمگیر شہرت ملی۔ آپ جامعہ عثمانیہ سے ایم۔اے، ایل ایل۔بی کی ڈگریاں حاصل کرنے کے بعد اعلیٰ تعلیم و تحقیق کے لیے یورپ پہنچے۔ بون یونیورسٹی (جرمنی) سے ڈی فل اور سوربون یونیورسٹی (پیرس)سے ڈاکٹریٹ کی ڈگری حاصل کی ۔ ڈاکٹر صاحب کچھ عرصے تک جامعہ عثمانیہ حیدر آباد میں پروفیسر رہے۔ یورپ جانے کے بعد جرمنی اور فرانس کی یونیورسٹیوں میں بھی تدریسی خدمات انجام دیں۔ فرانس کے نیشنل سنٹر آف سائینٹیفک ریسرچ سے تقریباً بیس سال تک وابستہ رہے۔ علاوہ ازیں یورپ اور ایشیا کی کئی یونیورسٹیوں میں آپ کے توسیعی خطبات کا سلسلہ بھی جاری رہا۔زیر نظر کتاب خطبات بہاولپور دراصل مارچ 1980ءمیں جامعہ عباسیہ(اسلامیہ یونیورسٹی بھاولپور،پاکستان) کی دعوت پر یونیورسٹی میں ججز، علماءاور یونیورسٹیوں کے چانسلرز او رڈین حضرات کی زیر صدارت ڈاکٹر حمیداللہ  کے مختلف علمی موضوعات پر بارہ خطبات کا مجموعہ ہے جو علمی حلقوں ، قانون دان او ر دانشور طبقے کے درمیان خطبات بہاولپور کے نا م سے معروف ہے ۔یہ خطبات 8مارچ 1980 ء سے 20 ماچ 1980ءتک مسلسل جاری رہے۔ان خطبات کوسننے کےلیے اسلامیہ یونیورسٹی بہاولپور کے اساتذہ،طلباء وطالبات کےعلاوہ شہر کے علمائے کرام اوراہل ذوق و طلب خواتین وحضرات کی ایک کثیر تعدادتشریف لاتی جن میں ملک کے دوسرے شہروں سے آنے والے مہمانانِ گرامی بھی شامل ہوتے۔ان خطبات کاپہلا ایڈیشن اپریل 1981ءمیں شائع ہوا اور اسے بڑا قبول عا م حاصل ہوا ۔ زیر نظر خطبات بہاولپور کی گیارویں اشاعت ہے جسے ادارہ تحقیقات اسلامی،اسلام آباد نے اچھے کاغذ پر بڑی عمدگی سے شائع کیا ہے اللہ تعالی ڈاکٹر حمید اللہ مرحوم کی اشاعت اسلام کےلیے کوششوں کو قبول فرمائے (آمین)(م۔ا)

تاریخ قرآن مجید از ڈاکٹر محمد حمید اللہ >>>

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Introduction to Islam
by Dr. M. Hamidullah
Dr. Hamidullah's book is a good resource, not only for non-Muslims who wish to know more about Islam, but for Muslims who wish to learn more about their faith. Here is a complete listing of the chapters (and also other excerpts):
Ch. 1 ... The Prophet of Islam -- His Biography paragraphs 1-42
Ch. 2 ... Preservation of the Original Teachings of Islam paragraphs 43-98
Ch. 3 ... The Islamic Conception of Life paragraphs 99-125
Ch. 4 ... Faith and Belief paragraphs 126-159
Ch. 5 ... Devotional Life and Religious Practices in Islam paragraphs 160-198/a
Ch. 6 ... The Cultivation of Spiritual Life paragraphs 199-222
Ch. 7 ... The System of Morality in Islam paragraphs 223-257
Ch. 8 ... The Political System of Islam paragraphs 258-299
Ch. 9 ... The Judicial System of Islam paragraphs 300-336
Ch. 10 ... The Economic System of Islam paragraphs 337-379
Ch. 11 ... The Muslim Woman paragraphs 380-405
Ch. 12 ... The Status of non-Muslims in Islam paragraphs 406-442
Ch. 13 ... Muslim Contribution to the Sciences and Arts paragraphs 443-488
Ch. 14 ... General History of Islam paragraphs 489-515
Ch. 15 ... Daily Life of a Muslim paragraphs 516-592 [large file]
Select Bibliography of Muslim Authors
On Polygamy ...Paragraphs 402 - 404 
On Free Will and Predestination ... Paragraphs  121 - 125 
On Free Will and Predestination ... Paragraphs  155 - 158 
On  The Hajj ... Paragraphs 177 - 184
On why the Service of Worship (i.e. the Salat or Prayer) is in Arabic ... Paragraphs 575 i-xvii 
On Zakat and State Expenditure ... Paragraphs 351 - 367
On Gambling and Alcohol ... Paragraphs 251, 252, 368 & 379
On Holy War ... Paragraph 441 and 442
Determining the direction of the Qibla ... Paragraphs 554 and 582 (f and g)

EXCERPTS FROM OTHER BOOKS BY DR. HAMIDULLAH
Islam in a Nutshell An excerpt from the same book by Dr. Hamidullah
Treatment of Prisoners of War excerpt from The Muslim Conduct of State
Muslims and non-Muslims are Equal and Alike in Worldly Affairs excerpt from The Muslim Conduct of State
The Contribution of Imam al Shafi (An excerpt from The Emergence of Islam)

Source: http://muslimcanada.org/hamidullah_all.html
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Dual Islam

I enveloped myself in the study of Islam, the history of Muslims and the world history and devoted 14 years of my life in the search for answers. During this time, I completed eight years of the well-known Dars-e- Nizami of the “Islamic” Madrasahs. My initial impression of Islam:
  1. Belief in the Articles of Faith: Allah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book and the Prophets (2:177). Add to this the 6th “Imam-made” article of Taqdeer or pre-destiny.
  2. Belief in the Five “Pillars” of Islam: Kalemah, Prayers, Fasting, Charity, Pilgrimage.
  3. Recite the Kalemah after each call to prayers with much reverence.
  4. Saying Allahu Allahu Allahu aloud when possible.
  5. Daily recital of the Qur’an without understanding the meaning.
  6. Khatm (“Wrap up” the reading of the Qur'an individually, and in congregations.)
  7. Pledging allegiance to a saint.
  8. Visiting graves and praying to the dead.
  9. Prostrate at the Khanqahs (sanctuaries).
  10. Consider dirty clothes as the heritage of prophets. 
  11. Amulets and Vird Auraad (repeated invocations) to help solve all problems. 
  12. Considering the Prophet (S) as omnipresent and knower of the unseen. 
  13. Arranging feasts for the Mullah to ward off evil. 
  14. Listening to Qawwali (The Sufi poetry sung with music and clapping) as a way of achieving proximity with Allah. 
  15. Consider every non-Muslim as unclean, defiled. 
  16. Have Iman in Imam Abu Hanifa's Fiqh (jurisprudence). 
  17. Consider the Six Right Ones (6 compilations of Hadith) as Wahi (Revelation). 
  18. Ignore advancements made by the modern sciences. 
  19. Consider one who thinks and reflects a heretic.  
  20. Recite the Kalemah, and Paradise is yours. 
  21. All difficulties are overcome with du'a (praying) and not with proper action.
  22. Reciting words without understanding, engaging in useless rituals in order to attain Paradise filled with palaces and houris.
In my quest for answers, I came upon a stark realization. I learned that 128 flourishing Muslim empires had vanished over the last several centuries.
My spiritual teachers, the Mullahs tried to pacify me, "To these Kaafirs, the world is a pastime. Their glamour, prosperity, rule and success are nothing but a deceitful mirage. Soon they will be thrown on their faces into the Hellfire. While on the other hand, Allah, the Rasool, the Angels, the Garden of Eden, the houris (the heavenly beauties), and refreshing wines all are ours. We Muslims will enjoy the Eternal Life clad in silk and velvet in the well-carpeted, daisy-laden Gardens, embracing houris in our tents and palaces drinking refreshing wines served by the dancing, whirling, handsome servants, watching the waterfalls and fresh water streams, hearing nightingales etc etc etc." I became increasingly uncertain ! 

Excerpts from Book; Dual (dou,2) Islam (دو اسلام ) by Dr. Ghulam Jeelani Barq, Pakistan (1949), English adaptation by Dr. Shabbir Ahmed, Florida (2006) [ دو اسلام : ڈاکٹر غلام جیلانی برق کی شہرہ آفاق کتاب]
The book "Dual Islam" was originally written in Urdu as “Dou Islam” دو اسلام by Dr. Barq. Although it was first published in 1949, the significance of this concise book is increasingly important today. This book commands cautious circulation in Pakistan since it identifies the real, but emotionally sensitive, cause of the global decline of Muslims.
Dual Islam gives a bold, honest and compelling perspective to a subject that is difficult to broach. The Islamic World reigned as a superpower for centuries. Examining the decline of such a giant is no small undertaking. It required great courage by Dr. Barq in his lifetime to criticize and demystify some highly respected figures in Islamic history. In a country where the orthodoxy is persuaded by a powerful, misguided and obstinate clergy, Dr. Barq put his life in peril to reveal the facts stated here.

PREFACE

Barq’s book strives to give young and old alike, a bold perspective on Islamic ideology. It is meant to empower all Muslims to overcome man-made traditions and to revert to the only Authentic Text of Islam, Al-Qur’an. Barq desires to liberate the Islam that exists in Sufi monasteries, Sunni madrasahs, and Shia Imam Bargahs. He wants to free Islam from being bound in the volumes of Fiqh (five schools of Islamic jurisprudence Hanafi, Maliki, Hanbali, Shafi’i, Ja’fari).
Mazahib-e-Islam, a book published in Hyderabad, enumerates so many forms of “Islamic” practice that it is impossible for the government of Pakistan to implement a centralized Islamic guidance. Allah revealed to Prophet Muhammadﷺ only one form of Islam, that which exists in the Qur’an. Dr. Barq calls upon all Muslims to revert to the original Islam in order to achieve success and peace in this life and the Hereafter.

His book will elicit three kinds of reactions:

1. The young generation which is already distraught with the traditional man made Islam, will be overjoyed and they will get a forceful voice. 
2. The serious, mature reader will agree with the author but flay him for being too outspoken. 
3. The Mullah & Sufi oriented Muslims will scream and raise hell against him.
Let us understand that, thanks to the massive body of Ahadith, every sect of ours subscribes to a different brand of Islam. The True Qur'anic Islam is, unfortunately, sobbing, and sighing under the burden of 1.4 million Ahadith.
Did the Messenger of Allahﷺ preach varieties of Islam? Fortunately, the Muslims are realizing to understand that only the Qur'an based Islam can unite Muslims, and that it will come to pass, tomorrow if not today.

PREAMBLE

The Duel Between Deen & Mazhab [دین و مذہب]

*Fazil Deeniyaat, فاضل دینیات Dr. Ghulam Jeelani Barq (1901-1983) of Campbellpur (present Attock), Pakistan, was an accomplished Urdu writer. The brilliant scholar spent 14 years with "Ulama" and Sufis and even completed the 8 year curriculum of the famous DARS NIZAMI. How he remained so brilliant after spending so much time with extreme orthodoxy eludes me!
A recurrent theme of his excellent works was the decline of Muslim civilization. This voracious reader and analytical scholar arrived at the right conclusion: For centuries, the Islamic world has been suffering because of its belief in the Ajami, man-made, and counterfeit Islam (Mazhab مذھب ) that is propagated by our ‘spiritual’ leaders and Mullahs.
Mazhab مذھب is a complex set of rituals, superstition, fatalism and irrational dogmas. It dwells heavily on individually trying to “please” God for attaining “salvation”, whereas Deen دین اسلام is the Divinely Prescribed Way of Life completely enshrined in the Final Revelation of God, Al-Qur’an. The rational Deen enjoins upon humans to strive with their wealth and person to benefit people and it promises profound success (not just salvation) in both lives. The book explores the millennium old duel between Deen and Mazhab دین و مذھب
In its time, DOU ISLAM دو اسلام , was helpful in understanding the main reason for the deterioration of the Muslim World. It has not yet been translated into any language since it was published in 1949. Today, DUAL ISLAM presents to you the adaptation of this concise, yet convincing masterpiece. DUAL ISLAM introduces and illustrates the main ideas of the original. In the interest of brevity, the translator Dr.Shabbir Ahmed, M.D has freely paraphrased from the original. In order to maintain clarity, he has included his thoughts and observations where necessary. These are generally given within brackets [ ].

Hindu Prosperity and Muslim Austerity

As a child in 1918, I went from our village to Amritsar and saw that the majority of Hindus were prosperous business owners while the Muslims toiled at arduous labor. I questioned this disparity in society. My father replied, "My dear son! This world is nothing but carrion and its seekers are worse than dogs. Allah has given this carcass to non-Muslims and the eternal Paradise to us Muslims. Who is better off then?" Reluctantly, I asked, "Baba! Why do you travel to Amritsar on business then?" Annoyed, he chided, "Son! Never argue with elders. Don't you know there is a hadith about this world being analogous to a corpse?" The word hadith startled me and I was silenced, knowing not to question the authenticity of a Hadith. Yet I still had no answer to my question. Upon returning to my village, I approached the Imam of the Masjid with my query. The answer was exactly the same as my father’s! I was left alone with my simmering question

The Beginning of a Lifelong Quest and Some Fitting Answers

Time passed, my questions multiplied, but the answers remained divided among differing schools of thought and ‘spiritual’ leaders. I enveloped myself in the study of Islam, the history of Muslims and the world history and devoted 14 years of my life in the search for answers. During this time, I completed eight years of the well-known Dars-e- Nizami of the “Islamic” Madrasahs.
I enveloped myself in the study of Islam, the history of Muslims and the world history and devoted 14 years of my life in the search for answers. During this time, I completed eight years of the well-known Dars-e- Nizami of the “Islamic” Madrasahs. My initial impression of Islam:
  1. Belief in the Articles of Faith: Allah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book and the Prophets (2:177). Add to this the 6th “Imam-made” article of Taqdeer or pre-destiny.
  2. Belief in the Five “Pillars” of Islam: Kalemah, Prayers, Fasting, Charity, Pilgrimage.
  3. Recite the Kalemah after each call to prayers with much reverence.
  4. Saying Allahu Allahu Allahu aloud when possible.
  5. Daily recital of the Qur’an without understanding the meaning.
  6. Khatm (“Wrap up” the reading of the Qur'an individually, and in congregations.)
  7. Pledging allegiance to a saint.
  8. Visiting graves and praying to the dead.
  9. Prostrate at the Khanqahs (sanctuaries).
  10. Consider dirty clothes as the heritage of prophets. 
  11. Amulets and Vird Auraad (repeated invocations) to help solve all problems. 
  12. Considering the Prophet (S) as omnipresent and knower of the unseen. 
  13. Arranging feasts for the Mullah to ward off evil. 
  14. Listening to Qawwali (The Sufi poetry sung with music and clapping) as a way of achieving proximity with Allah. 
  15. Consider every non-Muslim as unclean, defiled. 
  16. Have Iman in Imam Abu Hanifa's Fiqh (jurisprudence). 
  17. Consider the Six Right Ones (6 compilations of Hadith) as Wahi (Revelation). 
  18. Ignore advancements made by the modern sciences. 
  19. Consider one who thinks and reflects a heretic.  
  20. Recite the Kalemah, and Paradise is yours. 
  21. All difficulties are overcome with du'a (praying) and not with proper action.
  22. Reciting words without understanding, engaging in useless rituals in order to attain Paradise filled with palaces and houris.

DISILLUSION
In my quest for answers, I came upon a stark realization. I learned that 128 flourishing Muslim empires had vanished over the last several centuries.
My spiritual teachers, the Mullahs tried to pacify me, "To these Kaafirs, the world is a pastime. Their glamor, prosperity, rule and success are nothing but a deceitful mirage. Soon they will be thrown on their faces into the Hellfire. While on the other hand, Allah, the Rasool, the Angels, the Garden of Eden, the houris (the heavenly beauties), and refreshing wines all are ours. We Muslims will enjoy the Eternal Life clad in silk and velvet in the well-carpeted, daisy-laden Gardens, embracing houris in our tents and palaces drinking refreshing wines served by the dancing, whirling, handsome servants, watching the waterfalls and fresh water streams, hearing nightingales etc etc etc." I became increasingly uncertain. 
If Allah was only the God of Muslims, then;
  • Why would He let the Kaafir Hulago Khan inherit the once glorious Abbasid Dynasty (in 1258 CE)? 
  • Why were the Muslims thrown out of their once golden rule in Spain (1492)? 
  • Why would the Mughal Empire of India capitulate to the trading British (1857)? 
  • Why were even our footprints erased from the soils of Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Poland, Serbia, Croatia, Ukraine, Greece and Bulgaria? 
  • Why were we evicted from France (Tours 732 C.E) in utter disgrace ? 
  • Tunis, Morocco, Palestine, Kashmir, Algiers, Libya became our graveyards. Why? [add now Afghanistan, Iraq, FATA Pakistan, Syria etc ... 2016]

I had trouble understanding this hapless predicament of the Muslim world and decided to approach the highest Ulama to shed some light on this. I returned to obscurity. I was not satisfied with their answers because they did not make sense. I cannot say I returned empty handed, I had managed to acquire a handful of Fatwas of apostasy. For nearly the next 7 years, any understanding of Islam had eluded me.

THE DUALITY WITHIN ISLAM

As a result, I became withdrawn from Islam and disinterested in reading even the Qur’an. Soon after, things started to change. One morning, on impulse, I opened my Qur’an. As if by Divine Inspiration, the verse before me read:

أَلَمْ يَرَوْا كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّن قَرْنٍ مَّكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَا لَمْ نُمَكِّن لَّكُمْ وَأَرْسَلْنَا السَّمَاءَ عَلَيْهِم مِّدْرَارًا وَجَعَلْنَا الْأَنْهَارَ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهِمْ فَأَهْلَكْنَاهُم بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَأَنشَأْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ قَرْنًا آخَرِينَ ﴿سورة الأنعام ٦﴾
“Do they not see how many a generation We (Our Law) annihilated before them? We had established them on earth better than We have established you, and We showered on them abundant blessings from the sky, and caused the rivers to flow beneath them. But, when they trailed behind in humanity, We (Our Law) annihilated them and raised in their stead other generations,” (Qur’an, 6:6)
کیا انہوں نے دیکھا نہیں کہ ان سے پہلے کتنی ایسی قوموں کو ہم ہلاک کر چکے ہیں جن کا اپنے اپنے زمانہ میں دور دورہ رہا ہے؟ اُن کو ہم نے زمین میں وہ اقتدار بخشا تھا جو تمہیں نہیں بخشا ہے، ان پر ہم نے آسمان سے خوب بارشیں برسائیں اور ان کے نیچے نہریں بہا دیں، (مگر جب انہوں نے کفران نعمت کیا تو) آخر کار ہم نے ان کے گناہوں کی پاداش میں انہیں تباہ کر دیا اور ان کی جگہ دوسرے دور کی قوموں کو اٹھایا (Qur’an, 6:6)
I had arrived at the answer. There was a glimmer of light after much darkness. I decided to step out of this darkness, to broaden my vision and free myself from blind following. I continued to read the Qur'an in its entirety and understand the True Message of Allah. I found it replete with motivation to action. Every deed has an exact recompense. I re-examined the Ahadith احادیث in the Light of the Qur’an. It became clear that over time the opponents of Islam had contaminated the original Message. Even our very own spiritual leaders had toyed with the meaning of the Message of Allah and had falsely attributed words and actions to the Prophetﷺ. The Qur’an promises reward for those who make efforts to succeed in this world and the next. The mullas offered the convenient rituals and formulas to achieve results without any action on the part of the person. At this time, the Islamic spirit had been burdened by pointless rituals. So, while the kaafirs (unbelievers) were living comfortably and attaining success in this life, most Muslims continued to drown in their worship and misery.
There were in reality, Two Islams, one in theory and one in practice. The Original Message of Allah (Quran) remained a theory and a parallel Islam emerged centuries ago; one which bases itself on fabricated history and Ahadith. Keep reading << book in English>> or <<اردو >>

Note/Caution ! This book created a lot  of controversies, hundreds of books and articles were written, some links have been given below. Discretion is recommended. People with with mature & free mind, seeking truth & knowledge may read it. The author is reported to have retracted his stance after reading the rebuttal تفہیم اسلام  بجواب دو اسلام  http://ia600503.us.archive.org/35/items/Tafheem-e-Islam/Tafheem-e-Islam.pdf  and wrote a book on "History of Hadith"  Reader can read all these books  <<here>> or at links below, to read and draw his own conclusions:
  1. Dual Islam [English version of DOO ISLAM دو اسلام ]: https://goo.gl/GOZwbf  Pdf
  2.  دو اسلام - ڈاکٹر غلام جیلانی برق 
  3.  تفہیم اسلام جواب، دو اسلام" مولانا مسعود احمد بی۔ایس۔" 
  4. تاریخ حدیث - ڈاکٹر غلام جیلانی برق 
  5.  All books of Dr.Barq in Urdu << ڈاکٹر غلام جیلانی برق کی تمام << کتابیں 
 تبصرے، تنقید  اور خیالات - Controversies & Discussion
This book created a lot  of controversies, hundreds of books and articles were written, some links can be found below. 
دو اسلام کے جواب میں سینکڑوں کتب تحریر کی گئیں۔ جن میں سے مولانا سرفراز خان صفدر نے صرف ایک اسلام، مفتی احمد یا خان نعیمی نے ایک اسلام، حافظ محمد گوندلوی نے دوامِ حدیث، مولانا مسعود احمد بی۔ایس۔سی نے تفہیم اسلام بجواب دو اسلام اس کتاب میں مسعود احمد صاحب نے "دو اسلام" کے ایک ایک پیرا کا علیحدہ علیحدہ جواب لکھا ہے۔ کھا جاتا ہے کہ اس کتاب (تفہیم اسلام بجواب دو اسلام) کو پڑھ کر غلام جیلانی برق صاحب نے اپنے موقف سے رجوع کیا اور کتاب تاریخ تدوین حدیث لکھی۔
غلام جیلانی برق نے اپنی پہلی تین کتب، ایک اسلام، د واسلام، اور دو قرآن سے رجوع کر لیا تھا یا نہیں، اس پر ان کی زندگی میں بھی اور بعد از وفات بھی بحث جاری ہے۔ رجوع کے حامی ان کے کچھ مکتوبات جو جیلانی برق کی حیات میں مختلف کتب میں شائع ہوئے، جن میں انھوں نے اپنی کتب کے مندرجات سے رجوع کیا ہے۔اور دیگر کتب میں ان کتب میں پیش کردہ نظریات کے برخلاف دوسرا نقطہ نظر پیش کیا، جیسے تدیون حدیث، اور محدثین کی زندگی پر کتاب لکھ کر۔ حالیہ برسوں میں پاکستان میں دو معروف کالم نویسوں جاوید چودھری ، اوریا مقبول جان کے درمیان بھی یہ بحث جاری ہے:
  1.  http://www.urduweb.org/mehfil/threads/دو-اسلام-از-ڈاکٹر-غلام-جیلانی-برق.89899/page-2 
  2. Controversy: http://javedch.com/javed-chaudhry-urdu-columns/2015/04/28/41732
  3. http://urdu.alarabiya.net/ur/politics/2015/04/26/-دو-اسلام-.html
  4. http://www.urduweb.org/mehfil/threads/برقیائی-گئی-پانچ-اسلامی-و-تاریخی-کتب-۔.30424/page-3
  5. http://kitaben.urdulibrary.org/Pages/DoIslam.html
  6. دو اسلام از ڈاکٹر غلام جیلانی برق - 1 http://awarafikar.blogspot.com/2016/05/1.html 
  7. https://www.facebook.com/Quddusia/posts/665511020221231 
  8. https://ur.wikipedia.org/wiki/غلام_جیلانی_برق
  9. http://baazauq.blogspot.com/2010/12/inkaar-e-hadees-se-taarikhe-hadees-tak.html
  10. تاریخ حدیث-  ڈاکٹر مرتضیٰ مطھری: http://kitaben.urdulibrary.org/Pages/Tarikh2.html
  11. تفہیم اسلام  بجواب دو اسلام  http://ia600503.us.archive.org/35/items/Tafheem-e-Islam/Tafheem-e-Islam.pdf
  12. Read in Urdu : http://salaamforum.blogspot.com/2016/05/blog-post_27.html
Hadith Literature: 
"It would, therefore, be improper to ignore or underestimate the significance of the Ahadith literature as a historical source even if its authenticity may appeal doubtful. The modern Occidentalists are of the opinion that in spite of the fact that Apocrypha are of doubtful authenticity, we can still peep through them into the social life and behaviour of their fabricators, hence their significance as a source of history should not be denied. Similarly, even such portions of the hadith material as have been declared fake, unauthentic and of doubtful nature, contain most valuable hints regarding one or the other aspect of the early Islamic society" [Encyclopaedia Historiography of the Muslim World, Global Vision Publishing House, First Edition 2003, Page 319]
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